1. drupal
    1. 5 common.inc
    2. 6
    3. 7
    4. 8
5 drupal_mail($mailkey, $to, $subject, $body, $from = NULL, $headers = array())
6 – 8 drupal_mail($module, $key, $to, $language, $params = array(), $from = NULL, $send = TRUE)

Compose and optionally send an e-mail message.

Sending an e-mail works with defining an e-mail template (subject, text and possibly e-mail headers) and the replacement values to use in the appropriate places in the template. Processed e-mail templates are requested from hook_mail() from the module sending the e-mail. Any module can modify the composed e-mail message array using hook_mail_alter(). Finally drupal_mail_system()->mail() sends the e-mail, which can be reused if the exact same composed e-mail is to be sent to multiple recipients.

Finding out what language to send the e-mail with needs some consideration. If you send e-mail to a user, her preferred language should be fine, so use user_preferred_language(). If you send email based on form values filled on the page, there are two additional choices if you are not sending the e-mail to a user on the site. You can either use the language used to generate the page ($language global variable) or the site default language. See language_default(). The former is good if sending e-mail to the person filling the form, the later is good if you send e-mail to an address previously set up (like contact addresses in a contact form).

Taking care of always using the proper language is even more important when sending e-mails in a row to multiple users. Hook_mail() abstracts whether the mail text comes from an administrator setting or is static in the source code. It should also deal with common mail tokens, only receiving $params which are unique to the actual e-mail at hand.

An example:

  function example_notify($accounts) {
    foreach ($accounts as $account) {
      $params['account'] = $account;
      // example_mail() will be called based on the first drupal_mail() parameter.
      drupal_mail('example', 'notice', $account->mail, user_preferred_language($account), $params);

  function example_mail($key, &$message, $params) {
    $data['user'] = $params['account'];
    $options['language'] = $message['language'];
    user_mail_tokens($variables, $data, $options);
    switch($key) {
      case 'notice':
        $langcode = $message['language']->language;
        $message['subject'] = t('Notification from !site', $variables, array('langcode' => $langcode));
        $message['body'][] = t("Dear !username\n\nThere is new content available on the site.", $variables, array('langcode' => $langcode));


$module A module name to invoke hook_mail() on. The {$module}_mail() hook will be called to complete the $message structure which will already contain common defaults.

$key A key to identify the e-mail sent. The final e-mail id for e-mail altering will be {$module}_{$key}.

$to The e-mail address or addresses where the message will be sent to. The formatting of this string must comply with RFC 2822. Some examples are:

$language Language object to use to compose the e-mail.

$params Optional parameters to build the e-mail.

$from Sets From to this value, if given.

$send Send the message directly, without calling drupal_mail_system()->mail() manually.

Return value

The $message array structure containing all details of the message. If already sent ($send = TRUE), then the 'result' element will contain the success indicator of the e-mail, failure being already written to the watchdog. (Success means nothing more than the message being accepted at php-level, which still doesn't guarantee it to be delivered.)

▾ 8 functions call drupal_mail()

contact_personal_form_submit in modules/contact/contact.pages.inc
Form submission handler for contact_personal_form().
contact_site_form_submit in modules/contact/contact.pages.inc
Form submission handler for contact_site_form().
email_example_mail_send in examples/email_example/email_example.module
Sends an e-mail.
hook_watchdog in modules/system/system.api.php
Log an event message
MailTestCase::testPluggableFramework in modules/simpletest/tests/mail.test
Assert that the pluggable mail system is functional.
system_send_email_action in modules/system/system.module
Sends an e-mail message.
_update_cron_notify in modules/update/update.fetch.inc
Perform any notifications that should be done once cron fetches new data.
_user_mail_notify in modules/user/user.module
Conditionally create and send a notification email when a certain operation happens on the given user account.


includes/mail.inc, line 99

function drupal_mail($module, $key, $to, $language, $params = array(), $from = NULL, $send = TRUE) {
  $default_from = variable_get('site_mail', ini_get('sendmail_from'));

  // Bundle up the variables into a structured array for altering.
  $message = array(
    'id' => $module . '_' . $key, 
    'module' => $module, 
    'key' => $key, 
    'to' => $to, 
    'from' => isset($from) ? $from : $default_from, 
    'language' => $language, 
    'params' => $params, 
    'subject' => '', 
    'body' => array(),

  // Build the default headers
  $headers = array(
    'MIME-Version' => '1.0', 
    'Content-Type' => 'text/plain; charset=UTF-8; format=flowed; delsp=yes', 
    'Content-Transfer-Encoding' => '8Bit', 
    'X-Mailer' => 'Drupal',
  if ($default_from) {
    // To prevent e-mail from looking like spam, the addresses in the Sender and
    // Return-Path headers should have a domain authorized to use the originating
    // SMTP server.
    $headers['From'] = $headers['Sender'] = $headers['Return-Path'] = $default_from;
  if ($from) {
    $headers['From'] = $from;
  $message['headers'] = $headers;

  // Build the e-mail (get subject and body, allow additional headers) by
  // invoking hook_mail() on this module. We cannot use module_invoke() as
  // we need to have $message by reference in hook_mail().
  if (function_exists($function = $module . '_mail')) {
    $function($key, $message, $params);

  // Invoke hook_mail_alter() to allow all modules to alter the resulting e-mail.
  drupal_alter('mail', $message);

  // Retrieve the responsible implementation for this message.
  $system = drupal_mail_system($module, $key);

  // Format the message body.
  $message = $system->format($message);

  // Optionally send e-mail.
  if ($send) {
    $message['result'] = $system->mail($message);

    // Log errors
    if (!$message['result']) {
      watchdog('mail', 'Error sending e-mail (from %from to %to).', array('%from' => $message['from'], '%to' => $message['to']), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
      drupal_set_message(t('Unable to send e-mail. Contact the site administrator if the problem persists.'), 'error');

  return $message;